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A hierarchical deterministic (HD) Wallet is a collection of cryptographic private/public key pairs that share a common seed. A Wallet is used to generate Accounts.

"walletId": "eb98ae4c-07eb-4117-9b2d-8a453c0e1e64",
"walletName": "default"


Wallet seeds are generated with a default mnemonic length of 12 words. The BIP-39 specification supports mnemonic lengths of 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 words. To enhance your Wallet's security, you may consider opting for a longer mnemonic length. This optional mnemonicLength field can be set when creating a Wallet. It's important to note that once the Wallet seed is generated, the mnemonic is permanent and cannot be altered.


An account contains the directions for deriving a cryptographic key pair and corresponding address from a Wallet. In practice, this looks like:

  • The Wallet seed and Account curve are used to create a root key pair
  • The Account path format and path are used to derive an extended key pair from the root key pair
  • The Account address format is used to derive the address from the extended public key
"address": "0x7aAE6F67798D1Ea0b8bFB5b64231B2f12049DB5e",
"curve": "CURVE_SECP256K1",
"path": "m/44'/60'/0'/0/0",
"pathFormat": "PATH_FORMAT_BIP32",
"walletId": "eb98ae4c-07eb-4117-9b2d-8a453c0e1e64"

The account address is used to sign with the underlying extended private key.


Certain address formats can only be used with particular curves. See the table below:

TypeAddress FormatCurvePath FormatStandard Path

Where can I learn more?

In addition to the guide mentioned above on HD Wallets, there is also a page specifically on Derivation Paths.

What if I don't see the address format for my network?

You can use ADDRESS_FORMAT_COMPRESSED to generate a public key which can be used to sign with.

What if I don't see the curve for my network?

Contact us at

Private Keys

Turnkey also supports raw private keys, but we recommend using Wallets since they offer several advantages:

  • Wallets can be used across various cryptographic curves
  • Wallets can generate millions of addresses for various digital assets
  • Wallets can be represented by a checksummed, mnemonic phrase making them easier to backup and recover

Export keys

Exporting on Turnkey enables you or your end users to export a copy of a Wallet or Private Key from our system at any time. While most Turnkey users opt to keep Wallets within Turnkey's secure infrastructure, the export functionality means you are never locked into Turnkey, and gives you the freedom to design your own backup processes as you see fit. Check out our Export Wallet guide to allow your users to securely export their wallets.

Solana Notes

Solana paths do not include an index. Creating a wallet account with an index specified could lead to unexpected behavior when exporting and importing into another wallet.

When importing into a multichain wallet such as Phantom, see this guide on matching private keys across Solana, Ethereum, and Polygon.

Lastly, Turnkey will currently export Solana wallet accounts (private keys) as a 128-byte hex string. See the below on how to convert this to a base58-encoded payload that can be imported into a wallet like Phantom:

var web3 = require("@solana/web3.js");
var bs58 = require("bs58");

const uint8arrayToHexString = (buffer) => {
return [...buffer].map((x) => x.toString(16).padStart(2, "0")).join("");

const uint8arrayFromHexString = (hexString) =>
new Uint8Array(hexString.match(/../g).map((h) => parseInt(h, 16)));

const privateKey = "<your turnkey-provided exported private key (without 0x)>";
const address = "<your solana address>";

const base58DecodedAddress = bs58.decode(address);
const base58DecodedAddressHex = uint8arrayToHexString(base58decodedAddress);
const uintarr = uint8arrayFromHexString(

const imported = web3.Keypair.fromSecretKey(uintarr);
console.log("imported wallet", imported); // verify import

const privateKeyString = bs58.encode(uintarr);
console.log("phantom-importable private key string", privateKeyString);